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Press Statement April 20, 2020

Analysis From CAP and NAACP Highlights Need To Preserve In-Person Voting Options as States Expand Vote by Mail

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Washington, D.C. — As states move to expand voting by mail, a new joint publication from the Center for American Progress and the NAACP shows that in-person voting options must be preserved as well in order to prevent the disenfranchisement of millions of Americans.

Expanding opportunities to vote by mail is a critical, commonsense step that states should prioritize in order to help protect the health and safety of voters and poll workers alike. Unfortunately, some officials have coupled this call with efforts to reduce or even eliminate in-person polling places.

The CAP-NAACP analysis documents how eliminating or reducing in-person options would inadvertently disenfranchise many African American voters, voters with disabilities, American Indian and Alaska Native voters, and those who rely on same-day voter registration.

"Our vote is our voice, so it is essential that states take commonsense steps to protect Americans' right to vote and protect their health," said Rep. Terri Sewell (D-AL) and co-chair of the Congressional Black Caucus Voting Rights Task Force. "States that do not have vote by mail and no-excuse absentee voting should begin implementing those programs now. Vote by mail is especially important during times when Americans could be deterred from the polls for health reasons; but it is a good practice and one that will serve us well, even after this crisis has passed. At the same time, states must take steps to ensure that our polling locations remain open and safe for voters, including by instituting in-person early voting and recruiting poll workers who are the least susceptible to the virus. Thank you to the Center for American Progress and the NAACP for shining a light on this critically important issue."

The analysis shows:

  • Black Americans are disproportionately disadvantaged by vote by mail, given that they have higher move and homeless rates and are some of the least likely Americans to use vote-by-mail options.
  • Voters with disabilities require in-person accommodations.
  • People living on tribal lands may not have access to reliable postal service.
  • In-person voting options are necessary for voters using same-day voter registration.

"While vote by mail is a convenient option for many Americans, it does not work for everyone," said Danielle Root, associate director of voting rights and access to justice at CAP and co-author of the report. "This is why in-person voting options, including early voting, must be preserved in any vote-by-mail system. Other policies also must be adopted in order for this system to be effective, including those that expand voter registration and ensure that all voters have equal access to casting ballots that count."

"If we are to have safe and inclusive elections, we must implement multiple measures to ensure that all communities have unfettered access to the ballot box amid COVID-19," said Yumeka Rushing, chief strategy officer at the NAACP. "Vote by mail is one option, but it cannot be the only option. States and municipalities must think expansively and critically about how they can engage citizens, increase participation, and ensure their safety in these unprecedented times. If we start now, we can protect our people and protect our democracy."

The analysis recommends that expanded vote by mail must be paired with other policies to encourage voting, including:

  • Online voter registration
  • Same-day voter registration
  • Ballot-tracking programs
  • Nondiscriminatory signature verification requirements
  • No onerous requirements for absentee ballots
  • Robust voter education

Read the column: "In Expanding Vote by Mail, States Must Maintain In-Person Voting Options During the Coronavirus Pandemic" by Danielle Root, Danyelle Solomon, Rebecca Cokley, Tori O'Neal, Jamal R. Watkins, and Dominik Whitehead.

To find the latest CAP resources on the coronavirus, visit our coronavirus resource page.

For more information or to talk to an expert, please contact Marc Banks at or Sam Hananel at



Founded in 1909, the NAACP is the nation's oldest and largest nonpartisan civil rights organization. Its members throughout the United States and the world are the premier advocates for civil rights in their communities. You can read more about the NAACP's work and our "Game Changer" issue areas here.

About CAP

The Center for American Progress is a nonpartisan research and educational institute dedicated to promoting a strong, just and free America that ensures opportunity for all. We believe that Americans are bound together by a common commitment to these values and we aspire to ensure that our national policies reflect these values. We work to find progressive and pragmatic solutions to significant domestic and international problems and develop policy proposals that foster a government that is "of the people, by the people, and for the people."

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